Founder and Chairman of Prometeia. Currently Vice Chairman of publishing house “Il Mulino”. Having graduated from Milan’s Bocconi University in 1962, he attended specialist courses at the Brookings Institution of Washington. In 1982 he was appointed Professor of Economic Policy at the University of Bologna, a role he held until 2001. For over ten years he was Chairman of Borsa Italiana (July 2000-June 2011) and he was Vice Chairman of the London Stock Exchange from 2007 to 2010. He was Economic Advisor to the Prime Minister’s Office from 1996 to 1998, member of the Technical Scientific Committee of the Budget Office from 1993 to 1997, and of the ISTAT Supreme Council from 1980 to 1983. In the 1980s he sat on various government study committees: the Energy Policy Committee, the Public Expenditure Technical Committee, the Technical-Scientific Committee of the Economics, Energy and Development Group, and the Committee on public expenditure planning procedures in the Treasury. During the same period he was member of the Scientific Committee of the National Institute for Foreign Trade.